EXPOSED: GWU “scholar” Jennifer C. James’s 500+ FACTUAL ERRORS in academic publications including “A Freedom Bought With Blood: African American War Literature from the Civil War to World War II” (UNC Press, 2007).

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All six (6) of Dr. Jennifer C. James’s “academic” publications…FACT-CHECKED.

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NOTE: Academic Fraud includes but is not limited to Fabrication–defined as “the use of invented, altered, or manipulated information in any formal academic exercise. This includes making up data and/or citations to back up arguments.”

THIS WEBSITE REVEALS the more than 500 (yes, five hundred) factual errors that riddle the published writings–one book and five articles–of Jennifer C. James, Ph.D. Interestingly the vast majority of those factual errors relate to the author’s self-claimed areas of academic “specialty”: African-American literature, African-American history, military history, and disability studies.

MOST IMPORTANTLY the website reveals how all of these publications contain apparent fabrications–see definition above. Many serious empirical misrepresentations–often serving the author’s personal “literary theories”–have missing, incomplete, erroneous, or otherwise occluding citations. One easily wonders: Is at least some of the publications’ content not just false–but falsified?

PURPOSE: Dr. James, a tenured English professor at The George Washington University and director of GWU’s Africana Studies Program, has not responded to multiple queries about the pervasive misinformation/disinformation in her entire body of “scholarship”–hence this website of a group of professional scholars who refuse to let flagrant academic malpractice go unaddressed. Dedicated to academic integrity, the website is provided both as a reader-service and a writer-service–that is, to help limit the literary/historical (etc.) errata from being perpetuated/proliferated in other publications. Regrettably this has already occurred (see Report #1, Listing #232).

Of course all serious comments are welcome and any/all warranted amendments will be made immediately. –The Fact-checkers


REPORT #1 (this webpage) uncovers 400+ factual errors in a 336-page book: A Freedom Bought with Blood (2007).

REPORT #2 (posted) uncovers 30+ factual errors in a 19-page article in the anthology Fighting Words and Images (2012).

REPORT #3 (posted) uncovers 35+ factual errors in a 22-page article in the anthology Feminist Disability Studies (2011).

REPORT #4 (posted) uncovers 50+ factual errors in a 27-page article in the journal American Literary History (2012).

REPORT #5 (posted) uncovers 22+ factual errors in a 15-page article in the journal Environmental Criticism for the 21st Century (2011).

REPORT #6 (posted) uncovers 32+ factual errors in a 15-page article in the journal African American Review (2005).



Book by Jennifer C. James, A Freedom Bought with Blood: African American War Literature from the Civil War to World War II (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007).  cover [click to enlarge]

FINDINGS: More than 400 factual errors in 336 pages.

ITEMS #4, 5, 16, 18, 33, 38, 56, 62, 64, 79, 92, 107, 114, 116, 125-127, 156, 174, 177, 197, 224, 232, 241, 244, 252, 264, 270, 281, and 298: Fabrications?

OVERVIEW: It would be hard to imagine a more flawed “scholarly” book. Strikingly the great majority of errata are in the book’s–and the author’s–main areas: black literature, black history, and military history. Many are egregious and set back rather than advance knowledge in those fields. Please note AFBWB includes not only misconstrued data but numerous data that look fabricated (search term FAB). Further serious damage is done by the book’s constant stream of small and medium-sized untruths. The below report shows how errors of fact start on AFBWB’s cover, fill the opening paragraph and first page, and continue on nearly every page of a text which is not just “unscholarly” but a travesty of scholarship.


  1. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, cover: [Title:] “A Freedom Bought With Blood.”            CORRECTION: A hint of things to come, the book’s title itself is fallacious and the English-major author in fact claims the opposite of historical reality. Obviously chosen for sensationalism rather than sense, the phrase clearly suggests that in the years covered by AFBWB, Black America in exchange for stalwart military-service was rewarded with civil-liberties. Infamously, for all wars–with the partial exception of the Civil War–in a period of segregation and other legal racial discrimination, African-Americans fought for their country but without the Government’s promising–or conferring–any racial freedoms. There was the irony/injustice that, having fought for the freedoms of OTHERS, black veterans of the Spanish-American War, WWI, WWII and other conflicts returned home to Jim Crow and second-class citizenship for THEMSELVES. Indeed a key theme of African-American history circa 1865-1945 is that Black America could NOT even “buy freedom with blood.”
  2. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, cover: [Illustration credit:] “‘The Colored Man Is No Slacker,’ G.H. Henesch, 1918.”           CORRECTION: The title of the World War I recruiting poster appearing on AFBWB’s cover is “Colored [no ‘The’] Man Is No Slacker”; and all three of the artist’s names are wrong–he was not “G.H. Henesch” but E.G. Renesch.  slacker   XC1995.427.9_000 (3)13671702_3
  3. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 1: [Epigraph:] “In the face…”            CORRECTION: The book’s very first words, from a famous poem by African-American poet Olivia Bush-Banks, are in error and should read: “In face of…”
  4. FABRICATION? page 1: [First sentence:] “In 1770, fugitive slave Crispus Attucks…”           CORRECTION: Setting up a literary theory, AFBWB’s opening sentence is another historical untruth–famously, little is known about the background of the “mulatto” Attucks killed in the Boston Massacre, and while it’s probable Attucks was formerly enslaved, a runaway/illegal status is pure (romantic) speculation. On no empirical basis–in fact disregarding standard scholarship–AFBWB for literary purposes avers definitively that Attucks was a “fugitive slave.”  and
  5. FABRICATION? page 1: [Second sentence:] “According to the early nineteenth-century historian Richard Botta…”            CORRECTION: The book’s very first reference turns out to be invented–and concealing. The fact-checkers found there’s no such historian as “Richard Botta.” [!] Since AFBWB’s cited secondary source–an antique book by William C. Nell (“The Colored Patriots of the Revolution,” 1855)–says only “Botta,” it appears AFBWB’s author, rather than bothering to research a first name for Nell’s primary source, simply made one up. As it turns out, AFBWB’s quoted opening “historical” account of the Boston Massacre comes from Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo Botta–a European historian who with few sources penned a notoriously embroidered and inaccurate account of the American Revolution (“Storia della Guerra dell’Independenza degli Stati Uniti di America,” 1809). Indeed in obscuring the identity of Carlo Botta, AFBWB also obscures that a supposedly rock-solid source is in fact untenable. Interestingly, AFBWB’s opening quotation by “Richard Botta” includes four [!] ellipses–not just condensing the text but removing patent fictionalizing that could undermine “Richard Botta’s” credibility. Excised, for example, is Carlo Botta’s ludicrous claim that victim Crispus Attucks cried to the crowd of colonists on King Street: “‘Be not afraid; they [British soldiers] dare not fire: why do you hesitate, why do you not kill them, why not crush them at once?'”   storia [click to enlarge]
  6. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 1: “…the patriot press, led at that time by Samuel Adams’s ‘Boston Gazette.’”           CORRECTION: It was Benjamin Edes’s “Boston Gazette.” Famously, Samuel Adams was a failed newspaperman and wrote for various Boston papers.
  7. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 1: “The [Boston] ‘Gazette’ reported that [Crispus Attucks] ‘fell on a stick’…”           CORRECTION: Rather the account was in the trial transcript;…
  8. …which said Attucks was “leaning” on a stick.
  9. LITERARY ERROR, pages 1-2: “[Future U.S. president] John Adams…infamously characteriz[ed] the group [as] ‘…mulattoes, Irish teagues and outlandish jack tars.’           CORRECTION: “…molattoes, Irish teagues and out landish jack tarrs.”
  10. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 2: “…the group led by Attucks…”          CORRECTION: This is absurd–the impromptu and motley assemblage of colonists on King Street had no “leader”; Crispus Attucks became famous because he was (by chance) the first to die when the British militia fired into the crowd. It’s also well-known–as AFBWB also overlooks–that Attucks’s “leadership” in the Boston Massacre was constructed in the early-19th century by propagandizing abolitionists (such as William C. Nell) to aggrandize Attucks and have a black person be the “first” American patriot-martyr.
  11. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 2: “Joining the Spanish in 1736 to repress Natchez Indians in Mobile, Alabama, blacks served as officers within what is believed to be the first all-black military unit formed on American soil, comprising 19 percent of the total forces.”           CORRECTION: This is an egregious bundle of untruths representing a gross misreading of the cited source, Charles M. Christian’s standard reference “Black Saga.” The facts: The French repressed the Natchez in that place and era; …
  12. …the cited battle was in 1730; …
  13. …blacks comprised 10 percent of the total forces; and…
  14. …indeed there was no [!] all-black military unit at all in that time/place.
  15. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 2: “…the French Indian Wars.”           CORRECTION: Nonsensical; they were the “French and Indian Wars.”
  16. FABRICATION? page 3: “In 1775, the Continental Congress bowed to pressure from southern leadership, voting ‘unanimously to reject [from military service] all slaves, and by a great majority to reject negroes altogether.'”             CORRECTION: These claims are hugely mistaken. AFBWB’s uncited “bowed to pressure from southern leadership” is not only erroneous but ahistorical–since in the 1770s, slavery/negrophobia were just as prevalent in the North; and…
  17. …this voting was not even by the Continental Congress. As the cited source clearly explains, this decision was by the Continental Army in an emergency war-council meeting in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 8, 1775. Alternately the term “Continental Congress” denotes the annual “founding-father” conventions in Pennsylvania, Maryland, New Jersey, and New York to forge the government for a new nation. Big picture: AFBWB leads us to believe a whites-only military policy was part of the USA’s federal foundations–instead of an independent ad hoc Army decision that was soon (expediently) reversed.   broadsides_home  valley-forge-3“Continental Congress” vs. “Continental Army.”
  18. FABRICATION? page 3: “[In Paul] Revere’s [classic 1770 engraving of the Boston Massacre] the [victims] are depicted as ‘phenotypically’ white….In eradicating any visible black presence, Revere presents the origins of the nation as white.”           CORRECTION: In another major “historical” inventionagain serving a central literary theory–AFBWB makes the elaborate, baseless, maligning, and inane claim that America’s famous early patriot Paul Revere created/disseminated anti-black propaganda. In fact it’s well-known the actual artist of the 1770 engraving of the “bloody massacre on King Street” was not silversmith/printer Revere but Henry Pelham (half-brother of famous painter John Singleton Copley). Infamously Revere swiped the image from Pelham and, re-printing it under his own famous name, sold it not for ideological reasons but to cash in on a sensational news story. Thus when Revere hired the artist Christian Remick to hand-tint the black-and-white engraving–adding color for marketability–the Crispus Attucks figure was clearly distinguished with a brown face and/or black hair. The reason: Bostonians already knew the massacre’s first victim was a “mulatto”–and greater accuracy meant greater sales. Indeed the historical truth is the exact opposite of what AFBWB absurdly and irresponsibly claims–Revere, instead of “eradicating any visible black presence” in the famous engraving of the Boston Massacre, emphasized it.  massacre  massacre (3) Two versions of Paul Revere’s commercial product.
  19. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 5: “…a wood-carved image of Attucks’s slaying.”           CORRECTION: This falsely suggests sculpture; the standard art term is wood-cut engraving.
  20. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 7: “As a work of nonfiction history, [William C. Nell’s 1855] ‘Colored Patriots’…”                CORRECTION: As opposed to “fiction history”? Indeed that would aptly describe black antislavery-propagandist William C. Nell’s book “The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution.” Nell was only nominally an “historian” and his “historical study” was more accurately an abolitionist tract crammed with historical embroidering (such as that of Carlo Botta…) to portray blacks as early-American super-patriots. Indeed “Colored Patriots” was published by an antislavery group and featured an introduction by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Yet again AFBWB presents an inadmissible source as an authoritative source.
  21. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 7: [Famous 1773 poem by Phillis Wheatley:] “To the Right Honourable WILLIAM, Earl of Dartmouth, His Majesty’s Principal Secretary for North America, Etc.”            CORRECTION: Four mistakes in one historic title, which is: “To the Right Honourable WILLIAM, Earl of DARTMOUTH, His Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State for North America, &c.”
  22. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 8: “[Prominent black-studies scholar] J.L. Greene writes…”           CORRECTION: He is J. Lee Greene.
  23. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 9: [Herschel V. Cashin et al.’s 1899 book:] “Under Fire with the U.S. Calvary [sic].”           CORRECTION: The accurate title is: “Under Fire with the Tenth U.S. Cavalry.” Although a featured text of AFBWB, the classic study of “Buffalo Soldiers”–perhaps America’s most famous black military division–is never correctly cited: the word “Tenth” is missing; and…
  24. …”Calvary” is where Christ was crucified [!]–the military term for horseback troops is cavalry. In fact the non-word “calvary” [sic] is used consistently/often in the military-themed AFBWB.   8988 (2)    cavalry  calvary
  25. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, pages 10-11: [Famous Phillis Wheatley verses:] “…Black as Cain…May be refined…and join the Angelic train.'”           CORRECTION: “…black [lower-case] as Cain…May be refin’d…and join th’angelic train.” Liberties are taken with another Wheatley poem–and perhaps the most seminal text in the black literary tradition: “On being brought from AFRICA to AMERICA” (1773).  poem [click to enlarge]
  26. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 11: “…bodies victimized by lynchings, whippings, rapes, murders, and other sadistic acts…”           CORRECTION: Throughout AFBWB the term “lynching” is mistakenly used as a synonym for “hanging.” Instead it is a mob’s extralegal execution by any method. For example the infamous 1898 lynching of Frazier Baker and his infant daughter Julia was by gunfire (see #162).
  27. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 12: “…a [colored] convention in 1855 during which one black male leader explained the need for equal rights: ‘As a people…’”           CORRECTION: This convention took place nine years later (1864) during the Civil War; and…
  28. …the quotation is not from a “male leader” but a joint resolution of men and women conventioneers
  29. LITERARY ERROR, page 13: “The remarks made by…the unnamed white soldier…”           CORRECTION: In fact the cited source identifies the soldier as famous diarist Henry T. Johns.
  30. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 15: “Before black men were officially allowed to join the Union army, Frederick Douglass published [his] editorial ‘Colored Men, To Arms!'”          CORRECTION: This sentence is hugely erroneous. “Men of Color, To Arms!” is the accurate title of Douglass’s famous editorial of March 1863; and…
  31. …as its title indicates the editorial was for recruiting purposes [!]. Indeed the Civil War document dates from March 1863–not “before” but two months after the start of the Union’s black-recruiting in January 1863.–abraham-lincoln-and-the-recruitment-of-black-soldiers?rgn=main;view=fulltext  douglass  douglass [click to enlarge]
  32. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 15: “Again, during the Revolution, the Continental Congress decided not to enlist ‘Negroes, Boys unable to bear arms…'”           CORRECTION: Again (see #16), this was decided by the Continental Army. /var/lib/philologic/databases/amarch/.8870
  33. FABRICATION? page 16: “Documents of African American military service abound with ‘before’ and ‘after’ photographs of black soldiers attesting to this radical reformation. Serving as observable evidence of a rigorous and disciplined body, these photographs suggest that…”           CORRECTION: This is egregious: not only a major falsehood–but two false references for it. Propping up a literary theory, AFBWB alleges the U.S. Military had a long/common practice of photographing black soldiers “before and after” enlistment to document the African-Americans’ “radical reformation.” As confirmed by a prominent black-military scholar and a prominent black-photography scholar consulted for this website, this is pure malarkey–there was no such military practice.         Now for more of AFBWB’s spurious sourcing. Ever-so-broadly, the endnote (page 281) for such a major/specific claim says only: “For a discussion of these images, see Marcus Wood, ‘Blind Memory’ [pages] 266-271; and Maurice O. Wallace, ‘Constructing the Black Masculine’ [pages] 52-81.” But when the fact-checkers laboriously located/inspected the two cited scholarly books, it turned out neither says anything about the alleged “‘before’ and ‘after’ photographs”—which after all, not only do not “abound” but do not exist. In effect a double-roadblock is set up between the reader and the truth.
  34. LITERARY ERROR, page 17: [Miles O’Reilly quotation:] “…object at all…can a thrigger pull…his thatch of wool.”           CORRECTION: The lyrics (as confirmed by the cited source) to the racist ditty “Sambo’s Right to Be Kilt” are “…at all object…a thrigger can pull…its thatch of wool.”
  35. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, pages 17-18: “In the 1863 original from ‘Harper’s Weekly’….”          CORRECTION: Another blunder. Oddly, AFBWB claims at length that the “original” iconic image of the whip-scarred slave Gordon was a “drawing” by an “unidentified artist” for a magazine, “Harper’s Weekly.” Instead the original image is a photograph–one of the most famous in the history of photography–taken and signed by noted Civil War documentarians McPherson & Oliver in March 1863. When abolitionists widely disseminated the photograph, “Harper’s Weekly” in July 1863 anomalously ran a sketched (and now obscure) version to fit the magazine’s non-photographic format–and “Harper’s” was by no means first in showing the shocking mutilation of “Gordon.”   gordon  WhippedGordonHarpers The world-famous “Gordon” photograph and an obscure drawn rendering of it.
  36. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 21: “…when the Fifty-Fourth Massachusetts returned from its ill-fated attack on Battery Wagner…”           CORRECTION: “Fifty-Fourth Massachusetts Infantry.”
  37. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 21: [Pioneering African-American nurse:] “Nanahokye Sockum Curtis.”           CORRECTION: The mangled “Nanahokye” [sic] should be Namahyoke.
  38. FABRICATION? page 21: “Black women currently [2007] comprise a plurality of the 15 percent of women in the [U.S.] military…”           CORRECTION: No citation–and a major statistical error. “Plurality” means the greater or larger part. In the early-21st century, black women comprise roughly one-third of women in the military and the remaining two-thirds is overwhelmingly white.   .org/2011/12/22/women-in-the-u-s-military-growing-share-distinctive-profile/
  39. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 21: “…a Freeman’s school.”               CORRECTION: Freedmen’s school established by the federal Freedmen’s Bureau.   freedman-school [click to enlarge]
  40. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 23: “…Alice Dunbar-Nelson’s well-known World War I poem…”                CORRECTION: There’s no hyphen in the name of black poet Alice Moore Dunbar Nelson. Indeed Dunbar (i.e. Paul Laurence Dunbar) and Nelson were successive husbands.
  41. MILITARY ERROR, page 26: “[Famous Prussian] military strategist Karl von Clausewitz…”                CORRECTION: He was Carl von Clausewitz.
  42. LITERARY ERROR, page 28: [WWI German propaganda leaflet:] “…or are you not rather treated…To get into a restaurant…To carry a gun in this service.”                CORRECTION: [From the cited source:] “…or are you rather treated….To go into a restaurant…To carry a gun in this war.”
  43. MILITARY ERROR, page 28: “…the army general staff issued this bulletin…”           CORRECTION: The cited source clearly explains this inflammatory WWII memo was drafted but never issued.
  44. MILITARY ERROR, page 28: “[In the Navy, African-Americans] could be radio men, boatswainers, [sic] and machinists…”           CORRECTION: Glaringly, given AFBWB’s military theme, two of these three naval ratings are wrong. It’s not “radio man” but radioman; and…
  45. …”boatswainer” is another non-word in AFBWB. The term is boatswain (bos’n/bosun).
  46. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, pages 28-29: “The champion boxer Joe Louis…winning the world heavyweight title from the German Max Schmeling in 1938…”           CORRECTION: This is egregious. Louis already had that title–from knocking out Jim Braddock in 1937. In 1938 Schmeling was a challenger–and Louis kept the title.   max  joelouis [click to enlarge]
  47. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 29: “[Joe Louis] was drafted into the army [in World War II].”            CORRECTION: Another blunder about the Brown Bomber. The famous truth is just the opposite: boxing-champion Louis volunteered almost immediately after Pearl Harbor.   
  48. MILITARY ERROR, page 29: “[The U.S. Army’s] Camp Silbert…”          CORRECTION: Camp Sibert, near Gadsden, Alabama.  
  49. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 35: [Civil War black hero:] “Andre Cailloux.”           CORRECTION: The French-speaking Louisianan was André
  50. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 37: “Long before the abolition of slavery was declared an official war aim…”           CORRECTION: This is a grade-school canard–abolition was never an “official” war aim. Lincoln’s “Emancipation Proclamation” applied only to slave-holding areas “in rebellion” and was a war strategy (to weaken the South’s slave-economy and get ex-slave soldiers). Of course the “Border States” for their loyalty to the North kept slavery throughout the Civil War.
  51. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 38: “‘Black Codes’ in the South…Blacks in South Carolina, for instance…could not marry if ‘paupers.’”           CORRECTION: South Carolina’s “Pauper Law” was not a “Black Code”–i.e. special legislation cropping up during Reconstruction to hinder emancipated slaves. Like pauper-laws (a generic term) in many regions including the North, it dated from colonial times (seamlessly imported from Europe) and targeted (more numerous) poor whites.
  52. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 38: [William Wells Brown chapter title:] “The Growth of Slave Power.”         CORRECTION: Instead the title is “Growth of the Slave-Power”–with an opposite meaning.;view=fulltext
  53. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 39: [William Wells Brown passage:] “…the God of Justice would be on their side.”           CORRECTION: “…the God of Justice would be on the side of the oppressed blacks.”
  54. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 39: “…the slave revolution in Santo Domingo [led by] Toussaint L’Ouverture.”           CORRECTION: Saint-Domingue was Haiti’s name as a French colony–Santo Domingo was the neighboring Spanish colony, today’s Dominican Republic; and…
  55. Louverture has no apostrophe.  haiti  Toussaint-Louverture-Medal [click to enlarge]
  56. FABRICATION? page 40: “…what [Martin R.] Delany called his ‘New negro’ black male hero in his ‘Blake; or, the Huts of America.'”           CORRECTION: As it turns out, Delany’s 1860s novel “Blake” does not contain the famous phrase “new negro”–first popularized during the 1920s Negro Renaissance, and according to historians, first used in the 1890s (after Delany’s death). A full electronic search of “Blake; or, the Huts of America” can be done at:
  57. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 44: “Although [Fort Pillow] had been captured already, blacks did not have the option to surrender and were summarily shot…”           CORRECTION: This greatly distorts the Fort Pillow Massacre–one of history’s worst war crimes. On April 12, 1864, when Confederates captured the Union stronghold in Tennessee, no one had the option to surrender (in military parlance, there was “no quarter given”) and many whites including women and children were also killed in cold blood. AFBWB in supporting a literary theory makes this a purely “racial” incident.   ft-pillow-hl  anglo-african [click to enlarge]
  58. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 45: “…a version of [William Wells Brown’s novel] ‘Clotel’ was serialized in the ‘Weekly Anglo African’…”           CORRECTION: “The Anglo-African” [hyphen/no ‘Weekly’] was the name of the famous abolitionist magazine published at various intervals.
  59. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 46: “[William Wells Brown in] a speech given before…the Anti-Slavery Society…”         CORRECTION: On that occasion it was the “American Anti-Slavery Society”–among numerous anti-slavery societies in antebellum times.
  60. LITERARY ERROR, page 46: [Famous Bible verse (Acts 17:26):] “…to dwell on the face of the earth…”           CORRECTION: “…to dwell on all the face of the earth…”
  61. LITERARY ERROR, page 48: “[William Wells Brown’s ‘Clotel’ character] Jerome…is transformed into a decapitated torso.”          CORRECTION: This greatly misuses “torso”–which of course is a synonym for “trunk” and by definition is headless. Also, in Brown’s novel a cannonball beheads soldier Jerome but leaves his arms and legs intact–and a “torso” by definition lacks limbs.  torso  14thcenturycannon
  62. FABRICATION? page 49: “… before the [Civil War and its] modern weapons…having a head blown from a body was a relatively unfamiliar form of wounding [sic].”           CORRECTION: Uncited, this patently false “military history” looks concocted to serve a literary theory. Cannon–and flying heads–were battlefield staples since the 1300s,  five hundred years before the U.S. Civil War (1861-1865).
  63. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 51: [Historic French agency:] “National Office of the War Maimed.”         CORRECTION: It was the “National Office of the War Maimed and Reformed” (“Office national des mutilés et réformés de la guerre”).
  64. FABRICATION? page 54: “Writing for popular audiences who had not yet lost their taste for sensation and sentimentality…”           CORRECTION: So when did “popular audiences” lose this “taste”…?
  65. LITERARY ERROR, page 54: “[Novelist] William Wells Brown [by depicting a soldier’s death] in a frankly unsentimental fashion…introduced elements of realpolitik into fictional interpretations of the Civil War.”           CORRECTION: This usage of “realpolitik” is not only utterly pretentious…but utterly wrong. The term–famously associated with Machiavelli, Bismarck, Kissinger, et al.–means “politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations.” AFBWB’s sentence about novelist Brown’s graphic battlefield imagery calls simply for “realism.”   realp
  66. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 55: “The fact that [Frances E.W. Harper’s ‘Iola Leroy’ of 1892] was possibly the best-selling novel by an African American in the nineteenth century is ample evidence…”          CORRECTION: This argument (serving a literary theory…) is sophistic since “Iola Leroy” had the rare advantage of a commercial publishing house for distribution and advertising. As a black-literature specialist should know, most of the 19th century’s black-authored novels were either serialized in magazines (thus ephemeral and not discrete commodities) or self-published and author-marketed (thus inevitably obscure–whatever their potential reader-appeal). Indeed the modern publishing concept “best-seller” is hardly applicable to the nineteenth century.
  67. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 56: “Pauline Hopkins’s proto-science fiction novel ‘Of One Blood’ (1902-3) [is about] a black doctor [visiting] the imaginary African civilization of Telasaar.”         CORRECTION: Hopkins’s hero is a medical student; and…
  68. …the novel’s setting is Telassar
  69. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 57: “[Frances E.W. Harper’s] ‘A Duty to Dependent Races,’ a speech given before the National Council of Women in the United States…”           CORRECTION: Both the speech and sponsor are misrepresented. It’s “Duty [no ‘A’] to Dependent Races”; and…
  70. …”National Council of Women of the United States.”
  71. MILITARY ERROR, page 57: “[Civil War veterans’] Blue-Gray [i.e. bilateral] reunions [began] in 1874.”          CORRECTION: Not until 1887 (at Gettysburg)–a generation after the war’s end (1865); certainly not during the bitterness of Reconstruction (1865-1877).
  72. DISABILITY-STUDIES ERROR, page 58“…amputated veterans…”           CORRECTION: Amputee veterans. People are not amputated–their body parts are.   wpbc8d40a3_05 (2)
  73. LITERARY ERROR, page 58: “Frances Miles Finch’s famous poem, ‘The Blue and the Gray’ [1867]…”         CORRECTION: Francis Miles Finch–a male poet.
  74. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 59: “…during the military rule of Radical Reconstruction…”           CORRECTION: Simply, “Reconstruction.” Only the earliest phase of the 12-year period–all of it under military rule–is termed “Radical.”
  75. LITERARY ERROR, page 60: “[Silas Lynch the] black governor…”           CORRECTION: The major character in Thomas Dixon’s novel “The Clansman” and D.W. Griffith’s film “The Birth of a Nation” is a lieutenant-governor: second-in-command–as modeled on Reconstruction’s Louisiana lieutenant-governor, P.B.S. Pinchback.
  76. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 65: [William Still’s classic 1872 book:] “The Underground Railroad.”           CORRECTION: “The Underground Rail Road” (still two words in that era)–about a network which abolitionists often called “The Road.”
  77. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 65: “From 1864 to 1871, [black writer Frances E.W.] Harper traveled extensively in the South as a lecturer and teacher….”           CORRECTION: The Northern “free woman of color’s” Southern touring began in 1866–certainly not in 1864 at the height of the Civil War (1861-1865).
  78. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 66: “…the number of black members in Congress [in the 19th century reached] a high of seven in 1873…”          CORRECTION: A high of eight in 1875
  79. FABRICATION? page 71: “A white journalist who had heard Harper lecture made this remark about her poise and appearance: ‘Many more like Harper are greatly needed…to remove the bad odor from the name ‘negro.’’”         CORRECTION: As it turns out, the uncited remark is “Many more like Mrs. Harper…”; and…
  80. …it is NOT a white-racist’s slur at all–but a remark by a black person in an 1871 issue of the African Methodist Episcopal church’s newsletter (“The Christian Recorder”). Once again an AFBWB literary theory depends on misrepresentation and occlusion.
  81. LITERARY ERROR, page 77: “Augusta Jane Evan Wilson…one of the most popular women writers of the midcentury…”           CORRECTION: She was Augusta Jane Evans Wilson.
  82. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 77: “[Frances Harper’s] speeches such as ‘Coloured Women in America’…”          CORRECTION: Four errors in a single short title which is “The Colored Woman of  America.”  http://
  83. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 77: [Harper passage:] “The greatest want, if I understand…”          CORRECTION: “The greatest want of our people, if I understand…” Again and again, literary quotations in AFBWB are adjusted without indication.,++if+I+understand.%22+harper&source=bl&ots=ocbj9eoE2R&sig=PuTs9FxCUa1VqETWVLIP9GQMxng&hl=en&sa=X&ei=jnGiUoadJvHgsASUyIH4Dw&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=The%20greatest%20want%20of%20our%20people%2C%20%20if%20I%20understand.%22%20harper&f=false
  84. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 80: “The Colored A.M.E. Church…”          CORRECTION: Another misnomer used repeatedly/consistently in AFBWB. The major/historic black religious denomination is the A.M.E. Church–African Methodist Episcopal. Certainly it would not be “Colored African.”  allen  williams [click to enlarge]
  85. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 81: “George Washington Williams [in] his influential [1888] work ‘A History of Negro Troops in the Rebellion, 1861-1865’…”           CORRECTION: Another of AFBWB’s main texts is mistitled. Again several words are missing. Williams’s classic is: “A History of the Negro Troops in the War of the Rebellion, 1861-1865.”
  86. MILITARY ERROR, page 81: “…one out of eleven of the thirty-six thousand blacks who died in [Civil War] service died from illness.”           CORRECTION: No citation–and a huge statistical error. Three out of four is the long-standard estimate.
  87. LITERARY ERROR, page 92: [Irwin Russell’s famous 1878 poem:] “Christmas Night in the Quarters.”          CORRECTION: The accurate title with period notation is “Christmas-night [hyphen/lower-case] in the Quarters.”
  88. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 92: [Paul Laurence Dunbar quotation:] “The negro had put a power…”           CORRECTION: “The unhappy advent of the negro had put a power…”
  89. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 93: [Martin R. Delany passage:] “…from the fullness of his soul…”         CORRECTION: Period spelling “fulness.” Many of the transcription errors in AFBWB strip literary quotations not only of meaning but historicity/poeticalness.
  90. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 94: “[Union general] David Butler declared that southern slaves be treated as any other property seized…”           CORRECTION: He was Benjamin F. Butler.  butler2   bennett  mayo [click to enlarge]
  91. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 95: “In historian Lerone Bennet’s description of the period…”           CORRECTION: The famous African-American historian is Lerone Bennett, Jr.
  92. FABRICATION? page 96: “…Reverend A.D. Mayo, a northern clergyman who had made a career ministering in the South…”           CORRECTION: Not hardly. Mayo as an educational reformer once conducted a secular “Ministry of Education” in Southern schools.
  93. LITERARY ERROR, page 96: [A.D. Mayo quotation:] “…the [ex-slaves’] substantial opportunity for becoming the great laboring class.”           CORRECTION: Mayo said “the great laboring agricultural class”–and the missing word transforms his meaning.
  94. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 100: [Paul Laurence Dunbar passage:] “…armed resistance to the Negroes in the exercise of those powers and privileges for which the colored men fought.”           CORRECTION: “…armed resistance of the community to the Negroes in the exercise of those powers and privileges which are the glory of the country for which the colored men fought.”
  95. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 100: “…the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts, the first black regiment formed in the North.”          CORRECTION: It was theFifty-fourth Massachusetts Infantry.”
  96. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 100: “In 1863, six short weeks after [the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Infantry] regiment was formed [was its legendary] attack on Battery Wagner…”           CORRECTION: Sixteen weeks (four months) after. The regiment was raised in mid-March 1863 and the battles were in mid-July 1863.
  97. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 100: “[The regiment’s General] Gould was shot dead in [the] attack on Battery Wagner.”           CORRECTION: He was Robert Gould Shaw.  shaw  shaw
  98. LITERARY ERROR, page 101: [Famous character of Thomas Nelson Page:] “Marse Chans.”           CORRECTION: Marse Chan.
  99. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 103: “Born a slave in Savannah, Georgia…”           CORRECTION: As told in AFBWB’s featured text “Reminiscences of My Life in Camp,” author Susie King Taylor was born on a plantation in rural Liberty County, Georgia, and moved to Savannah at age seven.
  100. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 103: “Born a slave in…Georgia, King [sic] gained her freedom in the second year of the war after her uncle took his family and Taylor [sic] to St. Catherine’s Island…”           CORRECTION: AFBWB sometimes misnames the featured writer Taylor as “King”–and here (quite confusingly) both “Taylor” and “King” appear within the same sentence.
  101. LITERARY ERROR, page 103: “[Taylor’s book is] the only known extant memoir of an African American woman who directly participated in the Civil War.”           CORRECTION: “…the only known memoir…” “Extant” means surviving and falsely suggests other memoirs are known but lost.
  102. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 105: “Other racial spokeswomen…such as Ana Julia Cooper…”        CORRECTION: The towering black-woman writer/scholar Anna Julia Cooper is never named correctly in AFBWB.  Anna-Julia-Cooper-300-dpi
  103. LITERARY ERROR, page 105: [Thomas Wentworth Higginson passage:] “…the one described in my volume.”           CORRECTION: “…the one described by myself, from a wholly different point of view, in my volume.”
  104. MILITARY ERROR, page 106“[Harriet] Tubman designed, implemented, and commanded the [Civil War’s] famed Combahee River mission….”           CORRECTION: Uncited, false, and inane. Although Tubman as an army spy and scout played a major role in the Combahee River mission, it’s preposterous to say a spy/scout “commanded” (i.e. was “Commander” of) a formal U.S. Military operation. The commander of the large and multifaceted Combahee River mission was Colonel James Montgomery.
  105. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 107: “In a letter Tubman dictated for publication in an 1863 issue of the ‘Boston Commonwealth,’ she describes…”           CORRECTION: Tubman’s famous anecdote (“I was carrying two pigs…”) is retrospective of the Civil War and was first printed in Sarah Bradford’s 1869 biography
  106. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 107: “[Despite] remarkable military achievement, [Harriet] Tubman drew money from the government only after her husband, a former soldier, died….”           CORRECTION: This obscures that Tubman had two husbands (John Tubman and Nelson Davis).
  107. FABRICATION? page 108: “It was…commonplace for African American women…to masquerade as male during escapes from slavery (Harriet Jacobs and Ellen Craft are prominent examples).”          CORRECTION: It was not commonplace–which is why Craft became famous. Jacobs in her slave-narrative mentions once briefly using a sailor-suit disguise. Could AFBWB have furnished even one more example? Once again a historical falsehood serves a literary theory. craft [click to enlarge]
  108. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 110“On virtually every page of ‘Memoirs,’ Taylor asserts…”           CORRECTION: AFBWB here and elsewhere uses “Memoirs” (capitalized/ italicized) instead of “Reminiscences” as a shortened title for the featured text “Reminiscences of My Life in Camp” by Susie King Taylor. (Similarly, AFBWB sometimes misnames the book’s author, herself; see #100.)
  109. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 112: “…the South Georgia Islands…”          CORRECTION: This is a glaring misnomer–it’s the Sea Islands. Somehow, in AFBWB’s repeated references to the famous atoll off the coast of three states (South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida), the heart of the “Gullah” region and of major importance in African-American history, the Sea Islands are consistently called the (nonexistent) “South Georgia Islands.”   sea islands  seaislands  [click to enlarge]
  110. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 111: “…the many [Freedmen’s] schools that were established for black children after the Civil War.”           CORRECTION: Importantly–as the schools’ name suggests–they were established to educate ex-slaves of all ages.
  111. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 111: “…in 1868…the school she [Susie King Taylor] had opened four years earlier.”           CORRECTION: Taylor’s school started in 1866
  112. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 115: [Susie King Taylor passage:] “Outside the fort there were many skulls…”           CORRECTION: “Outside of the fort were many skulls…” Few literary quotations in AFBWB are fully authentic.
  113. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 115: “…an outbreak of variloid, a strain of smallpox…”           CORRECTION: The medical term is varioloid.
  114. FABRICATION? page 118: “…Henry Blanchot, a steward of John and Abigail Adams.”          CORRECTION: How much more wrong could this be? The man in Taylor’s Civil War memoir is Henry Batchlott; and…
  115. …Batchlott, born decades after the deaths of President and Mrs. Adams, was a steward, i.e. naval rating, aboard the “U.S.S. John Adams”–a Union warship! Evidently AFBWB’s author misread the text’s portrait-caption “Steward of The John Adams” as…”Steward of the John Adamses [sic].” A cousin of author Taylor, Batchlott figures prominently in “Reminiscences of My Life in Camp,” as does his assigned ship… Question: Is it possible AFBWB’s author, purporting to be an expert on this featured literary text, in fact never read the text at all? batchlott2 (2)  ussjohnadams [click to enlarge]
  116. FABRICATION? page 118: “Because no blacks other than [author] Taylor appear in portraiture [in the book’s illustrations], it can be assumed that Henry Blanchot’s [sic] connection with a prominent white family [the Adamses] was the sole reason he merited inclusion.”           CORRECTION: “Can be assumed”?! Again data is misconstrued resulting in a preposterous literary/historical misclaim. Batchlott had no connection whatsoever with John and Abigail Adams (see #115)–and merited a portrait for his importance in Taylor’s book. But AFBWB’s sentence suggests even further unfamiliarity with the “featured” text (see below):
  117. …Contrary to the claim “no blacks other than [Taylor and Batchlott] appear in portraiture,” there is indeed a third African-American, Corporal Peter Waggall, pictured in Susie King Taylor’s Civil War memoir…  frontis2
  118. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 119: [Susie King Taylor quotation:] “…take a deeper interest also, and remember that.”           CORRECTION: Nine words are cut without indication. Taylor writes: “…take a deeper interest in them; let the younger generation take an interest also, and remember that.”
  119. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 121: “[The] famous 1876 speech [Frederick] Douglass delivered…honoring the first Memorial Day and the eleventh anniversary of Lincoln’s assassination…”           CORRECTION: Another bundle of falsehoods. America’s first official Memorial Day was six years later (1882); and…
  120. …the purpose of Douglass’s 1876 speech was dedicating the “Emancipation Memorial” (aka “Freedmen’s Memorial”), a statue in Washington, D.C.
  121. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 121: “…Dr. L.S. Thompson, the black female physician who wrote [Mattie J.] Jackson’s [1866 slave] narrative…”                CORRECTION: It turns out Lucy Schuyler Thompson was not a physician but a “botanical doctor”–a period term for herbalist. The error is also misleading since America in 1866 had only one black female physician (the first): Rebecca Lee Crumpler who received her M.D. in 1864.
  122. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 122: “In 1870 [Frederick Douglass] warned blacks how to vote: ‘One is the party loyal to liberty…’ Again, in 1883…he reiterated his stance, announcing, ‘I shall never forget the difference…'”      CORRECTION:           Both years of these famous orations are wrong; Douglass gave the first speech in 1871 and the second (one of his last) in 1894 and
  123. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 122: “[Frederick Douglass’s famous 1876 speech called] blacks Lincoln’s ‘best step-children’…”           CORRECTION: This is ludicrous. Quite differently, what Douglass said was: “You [whites] are the children of Abraham Lincoln. We [blacks] are at best only his step-children.” [!]
  124. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 122: [Susie King Taylor passage:] “These she would trade for eggs, chickens, or cash.”           CORRECTION: Six missing words: “…trade with people in the neighboring places, for eggs, chickens, or cash.” Again and again, literary quotations are cut without ellipses.
  125. FABRICATION? page 123: “[Union colonel Thomas Wentworth] Higginson…though a life-long abolitionist, was also the man who claimed [in his 1869 memoir “Army Life in a Black Regiment” that] the military had made black men less ‘grotesque.'”           CORRECTION: This is an unwarranted positing that (“dead white male”) Higginson–one of the foremost champions of anti-racism in U.S. history–was a bigot. It proves to be a misquoting of Higginsoneliminating words without inserting an ellipsisthat changes his meaning. The full passage is: “they are growing more like white men,—less naive and less grotesque.” Removing “less naïve” creates the impression Higginson is denigrating black physicality in classic racist fashion. The “literary historian” also overlooks how word-meanings can change over time; the context shows “grotesque” is used in a commonplace Victorian sense: “rustic/uncouth.” The black recruits under the white colonel’s command came from the notoriously brutal slavery of the Sea Islands, and after some military regimentation these men in manner became “more like white men.”      Indeed the literary passage says the opposite of what AFBWB claims–startlingly progressive for his era, Higginson is insisting any differences between blacks and whites are due to enculturation. [The full text of “Army Life in a Black Regiment” can be easily seen/searched online at:
  126. FABRICATION? page 123: “Blacks [in Higginson’s memoir] are…’Sambos.’”           CORRECTION: Again to falsely defame Higginson, AFBWB (1.) pulls a word out of context; and (2.) ignores that word-meanings can change over time. According to historians, the term “Sambo” (possibly with African etymology) for much of the 19th century was a standard and mostly neutral signifier of African descent. Historians say the term–used repeatedly in abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe’s “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” (1852)–did not take on definite derogatory connotations until the late-19th century, when it proliferated through blackface minstrelsy and other rampant racist popular-culture, and was codified by the 1899 book “Little Black Sambo.” In his 1869 memoir, Higginson refers once to his African-American troops as “Sambos”; the usage appears neutral and indeed is from a passage about how the black soldiers were just as intelligent as white soldiers. and
  127. FABRICATION? page 123: “Blacks [in Higginson’s memoir] are ‘picturesque’ objects…”           CORRECTION: Not true–yet another trumped-up slur. An electronic search of “Army Life in a Black Regiment” [see above link] proves Higginson loved the word “picturesque” but never applied it to a human being.
  128. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 125: “…in 1898, African Americans voiced concern that a Cuba under [U.S.] rule would mean that more people of color would become victims of the blatant discrimination and racism that American blacks had endured for centuries.”           CORRECTION: Yet another inept historical assertion. Prior to U.S. occupation in 1898, Cuban blacks had endured centuries of “blatant discrimination and racism” of their own under Spain’s slave regime. In fact, Cuban slavery not only predated (circa 1500 vs. circa 1620) and outlasted (1886 vs. 1865) American slavery but by some measures was more harsh.
  129. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 126“African Americans formed a colored auxiliary of the New England Anti-Imperialist League in 1899…”           CORRECTION: In fact the “Colored National Anti-Imperialist League” had no affiliation with the Anti-Imperialist League (AIL) and its various regional chapters.
  130. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 126“…Booker T. Washington, while not expressly anti-imperialist…”           CORRECTION: Just the oppositethis is a gross biographical error since the era’s preeminent African-American leader-spokesman was indeed expressly anti-imperialist and did much for that cause. For example, BTW lent his famous name to the Anti-Imperialist League (AIL); was vice-president of a group opposing Belgium in the Congo; and spoke out about America’s annexation of Hawaii. Ironically this is discussed at length in AFBWB’s cited “source.”
  131. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 126: “[The Philippines’s first president] had studied law in Manila.”            CORRECTION: No, Emilio Aguinaldo never studied law—that was his first-cousin Baldomero Aguinaldo.
  132. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 128: “…H.T.J. Johnson…”           CORRECTION: The prominent black clergyman-poet H.T. Johnson had only one middle name/initial.
  133. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 131: “[Turn-of-the-century film] projection machines…such as Edison’s Kinescope, were renamed as War-Graph, or Warscope.”            CORRECTION: Another bundle of errors. The facts: “Kinescope” was the machines’ generic name. During the Spanish-American War, kinescopes (associated with newsreels) were marketed under such names as “War-Graph” and “Warscope.”  Meanwhile Edison’s version of the kinescope was the “Kinetoscope” which Edison marketed as “Wargraph.”
  134. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 132: “[The American epoch circa 1880-1910 is] more often called the ‘machine age’ than the ‘age of empire.’”            CORRECTION: Absolutely not–the historical term “Machine Age” denotes the 1920s and 1930s. The standard name of the period circa 1880-1910 is “Gilded Age.”
  135. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 132: [Booker T. Washington passage:] “Cast your buckets where you are.”             CORRECTION: BTW’s classic quotation is “Cast down your bucket where you are.”   btw
  136. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, pages 134-135: “[This was strongly argued by both the] editor[s] of the Washington, D.C., ‘Colored American’ [and]  the ‘Indianapolis Freeman’…”           CORRECTION: There’s no consensus since the same person (Edward E. Cooper) owned both newspapers and wrote both editorials.
  137. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 135: [W.E.B. DuBois 1900 essay:] “The Present Outlook for the Dark Races.”           CORRECTION: DuBois’s title is “The Present Outlook for the Dark Races of Mankind.”
  138. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 135: “…the racialism influencing white officers’ perceptions: ‘The most utterly reckless, daredevil savage…’”           CORRECTION: This familiar quotation is by a non-officer, Indian Wars cavalryman and diarist George E. Powell.
  139. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 136“Tom shows still abounded [in the 1890s].”           CORRECTION: This paragraph about anti-black popular culture should instead mention coon/minstrel shows. Conversely, “Tom shows” were moralistic plays and pageants inspired by Harriet Beecher Stowe’s 1852 abolitionist novel “Uncle Tom’s Cabin.”
  140. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 138: “[Herschel V.] Cashin, a prominent Georgia Republican…”            CORRECTION: AFBWB’s featured writer Cashin was an Alabama Republican senator.
  141. LITERARY ERROR, page 139: [Joseph Wheeler passage:] “…the colored troops true to their inborn spirit of loyalty went forth full into battle.”            CORRECTION: “…went forth full of martial enthusiasm to battle.”
  142. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 140: [Booker T. Washington passage:] “…in defense of yours, interlacing our commercial, civil life.”           CORRECTION: This is AFBWB’s second botching of BTW’s 1895 “Atlanta Compromise Speech”–one of the most familiar orations in black/U.S. history. The classic quotation is: “…in defence of yours, interlacing our industrial, commercial, civil, and religious life.”
  143. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 140: “…his [Booker T. Washington’s] disinclination to become involved in the affairs of darker races abroad…”            CORRECTION: This compounds a major biographical error; see #135.
  144. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 141: “[Archibald] Grimké writing nearly forty years after the war…”           CORRECTION: More than forty years after the Civil War.
  145. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 142: “[African-American clergyman Theophilus Gould Steward’s] book arguing for evolution, ‘Genesis Re-Read’ (1888)…”            CORRECTION: It was published in 1885
  146. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 142: “In 1889…at the Paris Exhibition.”            CORRECTION: Paris Exposition. An “exhibition” is a gallery display; an “exposition” is a fair-like event.  paris  chicago [click to enlarge]
  147. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 142: “…the 1893 Columbian Exhibition in Chicago.”            CORRECTION: Columbian Exposition.
  148. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 142: “…a [‘colored’] display at the 1888 Maryland Industrial Exposition.”            CORRECTION: No citation–and no such event. If AFBWB means the annual industrial “exhibition” at the Maryland Institute, it ended a decade earlier, in 1878.
  149. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 143: “[Leading Southern clubwoman] Mary Cecil Cantrell…”            CORRECTION: She was Mary Cecil Cantrill (wife of Kentucky governor James Edwards Cantrill).
  150. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 143: “…John Burgess, a former Confederate soldier and a professor who once instructed [Theodore] Roosevelt.”            CORRECTION: Just the opposite–Burgess (“the father of political science”) had fought for the,+John+William
  151. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 145: “[In 1904 pugilism was] a game in which black men were beginning to excel in the same arena, quite literally, as whites.”            CORRECTION: It’s a staple of sports history that skilled African-American boxers fighting–and often beating–white boxers in formal bouts stretches far back into slavery times and includes slaves themselves. Legendary antebellum black pugilists include Bill Richmond (aka “The Black Terror”) and Tom Molineaux.  boxer   CribbMolineaux  [click to enlarge]
  152. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 146: “…Stephen Bonsal, a white military historian…”            CORRECTION: Bonsal was a famous war-correspondent–a journalist who wrote about contemporaneous events.
  153. MILITARY ERROR, page 147: “[Michel] Foucault explains that in Sevran’s vision…”           CORRECTION: As Foucault indicates the war minister of the French Revolution was Joseph Servan.
  154. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 148: [Famous black officer in the French army:] “General Dodd.”            CORRECTION: He was Alfred-Amédée Dodds.
  155. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 149: “Stuart Chase [the] social theorist…”            CORRECTION: Chase was an economist and engineer.
  156. FABRICATION? page 150: “…African Americans did not share white cultural anxiety about machines and sought to master them as a sign of being civilized…”      CORRECTION: This is uncited–and without any empirical basis. Again a literary theory rests on faux-history.
  157. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 151: “[Theodore] Roosevelt referred to [the Philippine rebels] as ‘Apaches’ and ‘Oceala.'”         CORRECTION: Osceola; and…
  158. …Roosevelt applied that name of the legendary Native American warrior-chief only to the leader of the Philippine rebels: Emilio Aguinaldo. The U.S. President spoke of nemesis Aguinaldo as “the Osceola of the Filipinos.”  http://  seminole_chief_osceola
  159. LITERARY ERROR, page 156: “… corporeal trompe d’oeil of sorts…”           CORRECTION: The term is “trompe l’oeil“–French for “fool the eye.” (“Corporeal trompe d’oeil of sorts” might mean an elephant’s trunk growing out of an eyeball.)
  160. LITERARY ERROR, PAGE 158: [Famous Bible verse:] “…unto the third and fourth generations.”            CORRECTION: “…the third and fourth generation [singular].”
  161. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 162: “…D.W. Griffith’s [1915 film] ‘The Birth of a Nation’…caused a national controversy, sparking riots in Boston…”       CORRECTION: Still another myth perpetuated by a “scholarly” book. It’s easily learned that the single so-called “Boston Riot” of 1915 was a staged event: a mostly orderly indoor rally led by William Monroe Trotter.
  162. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 164: “In his 1899 novel ‘Imperium in Imperio’…Sutton E. Griggs [drew from the real-life 1898] lynching of a black postal worker in Waco, Texas.”            CORRECTION: Lake City, South Carolina was the location of the nationally publicized 1898 lynching–of postmaster Frazier Baker and his infant daughter Julia–commemorated in Griggs’s “Imperium in Imperio.”  baker [click to enlarge]
  163. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 164: [A.M.E. newsletter passage:] “…the ground shook beneath our feet…”            CORRECTION: “…the ground shook below our feet…”
  164. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 167: [World War II black hero:] “Private Dorie Miller.”            CORRECTION: The rating of messman Doris “Dorie” Miller was Cook Third Class.
  165. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 167: “[At Pearl Harbor, Dorie Miller] removed his wounded captain from the bridge, took control of a machine gun, and shot down at least two Japanese warplanes.”            CORRECTION: Major untruths–yet again a “scholarly” book perpetuates a romantic myth. A modicum of historical research reveals the facts: The “U.S.S. West Virginia” captain (Mervyn S. Bennion) refused to leave the bridge (dying at his post); and… 
  166. …an investigation concluded there was no evidence the gunning by Miller among others, while damaging the planes, caused any of the planes to crash. Awarded the Navy Cross for going “above and beyond the call of duty,” the messman said: “…I think I got one of those Jap planes. They were diving pretty close to us.”  miller3 [click to enlarge]
  167. MILITARY ERROR, page 169: “…[the soldiers] stand in a military-erect posture, fully uniformed [with] hands placed behind their back.”            CORRECTION: This shows further ignorance of the military; the soldiers stand “at ease.”
  168. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 169: “In 1944, the ‘Crisis’ ran a full-page advertisement asking its readers to contribute to a legal fund for three black soldiers…convicted of raping a white woman [in] Alexandria, Louisiana.”            CORRECTION: In a 1943 (April) issue of the NAACP’s magazine.
  169. MILITARY ERROR, page 170: “[World War I and World War II were] thirty years apart.”           CORRECTION: The conflicts were twenty-one years apart (1918-1939).
  170. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 171: “…the American Freedman’s Inquiry Commission.”            CORRECTION: “American Freedmen’s Inquiry Commission” under the U.S. government’s Freedmen’s Bureau.
  171. MILITARY ERROR, page 173: “…Fort Brown, where the [regiment] was housed….”            CORRECTION: “Housed” is also wholly inappropriate for military usage. This should say quartered.
  172. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 174: “One hundred and eighteen of the ‘rioters’ were charged in the two separate court martials [sic] that followed [the 1917 Houston Riots].”            CORRECTION: The black soldiers were charged as “mutineers”; and…
  173. …there were three separate courts-martial
  174. FABRICATION? page 175: “…Anglo-Saxon patriarchal control of women’s bodies…”            CORRECTION: This (serving a literary theory…) is specious. Of course patriarchy is nearly universal including in traditional African and African-American cultures.  patriarchy
  175. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 175: “One of the ‘conclusions’ [French colonel J.A.] Linard reached was that the French ‘cannot deal with’ black officers ‘on the same plane as whites…'”            CORRECTION: Linard thought the opposite. Famously, as W.E.B. DuBois helped expose, the WWI racist bulletin “Secret Information Concerning Black American Troops,” under Linard’s name, was neither written by Linard nor reflective of French views. The U.S. Army-issued propaganda to (mostly unsuccessfully) impose America’s Jim Crow system in Europe was written by General John J. Pershing himself.
  176. LITERARY ERROR, page 176: “One of the only extant interpretations of [Victor Daly’s 1932] novel…”            CORRECTION: The malapropism “extant” means surviving. Obviously this sentence calls for the (non-pretentious) word “existing.”
  177. FABRICATION? page 179: “Although a 1932 review of [Daly’s novel] ‘Not Only War’ in DuBois’s ‘Crisis’ makes no mention of [the character] Miriam’s scandalous behavior…”            CORRECTION: It turns out this AFBWB argument (in support of a literary theory) is contrived. W.E.B. DuBois was no longer editor; and…
  178. …the magazine’s “review” was a two-sentence blurb with no space for any plot details.
  179. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 182: “[The World War I] Armistice was reached in 1919.”            CORRECTION: Famously in the previous year, on November 11, 1918.
  180. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 183: “[The] nine black youths, ages thirteen to twenty-one, were accused of raping two white women in Scottsboro, Alabama.”            CORRECTION: Upon arrest the eldest “Scottsboro Boy,” Charles Weems, was either 19 or 20; and…
  181. …the alleged crime took place in Paint Rock, Alabama; only the first trial took place in the county-seat Scottsboro.   scottsboro  doublev [click to enlarge]
  182. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 187: “[The ‘Pittsburgh Courier’] was emblazoned with a ‘V’ across the front page.”            CORRECTION: Two V’s–for the black newspaper’s famous “Double Victory” campaign of WWII.
  183. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 188: “…Double VV program.”            CORRECTION: Double V [Double Victory] program.” (AFBWB repeatedly uses “Double VV.”)
  184. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 188: “…the communist Socialist Workers Party.”            CORRECTION: As its name indicates the Socialist Workers Party was socialist—different from communist.
  185. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 189: “Bucklin Moon’s collection of essays about World War II, ‘Primer for White Folks’…”            CORRECTION: Moon’s 1945 book–subtitled “An Anthology of Writings by and about Negroes from Slavery Days to Today“–covers several centuries of U.S. history.
  186. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 189: “In [Chester Himes’s] ‘Democracy Is for the Unafraid,” a 1945 article…”            CORRECTION: Published in 1944
  187. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 190: [Chester Himes dialogue:] “I’ve raped all kinda of [sic] women, white women, black women, yellow women, and the only…”            CORRECTION: “…all kinda women, white women, black women, yellow women, red women, and the only…”
  188. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 191: [Himes dialogue:] “…some Peckerwood’s face…what did I want to fight him for.”            CORRECTION: “…some peckerwood’s face…what the hell did I want to fight him for.”
  189. LITERARY ERROR, page 192: “In a series of lectures given at the Collège de France in 1976, Michel Foucault attempted to determine…”         CORRECTION: Foucault’s seminal lecture series “Society Must be Defended”  was largely in 1975.
  190. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 193: “…Japanese interment camps [in WWII].”            CORRECTION: Burial camps? The word is internment.
  191. MILITARY/BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 199: “William Scott III, a black journalist, accompanied [the] African American engineering corps charged with the task of burying the dead at Buchenwald. He wrote [about the Nazi-concentration-camp survivors]: ‘I saw in front of me the walking dead…'”            CORRECTION: The military term is engineer corps; and…
  192. …as the cited source confirms, this famous testimony is by Leon Bass, the black sergeant who led the battalion in 1945.  leonbass  gobineau
  193. LITERARY ERROR, page 200: “…the French Count Gobineau’s ‘Essay on the Inequality of Races’…”            CORRECTION: Both the famous writer and his famous text are misnamed. It is the Count de Gobineau; and…
  194. …the seminal 1850s racist tract is “[An] Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races” (“Essai sur l’inégalité des races humaines“).
  195. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 200: “Nazis had held a number of blacks [in] ‘labor’ camps, including the American woman jazz trumpeter Valaida Snow…”            CORRECTION: Yet another easily exploded romantic myth. Snow was held in Copenhagen’s city jail (Vestre Fængsel).  http://
  196. LITERARY ERROR, page 202: [Foucault passage:] “…to tend its entire historical weight…of disciplinary power.”            CORRECTION: “…to lend its entire historical weight…of a disciplinary power.”  http://
  197. FABRICATION? page 204: “[The novel’s character Randy] argues that the Germans ‘cheered…because they wanted cigarettes and chocolate and they were too scared to do anything else.'”            CORRECTION: There’s no such quotation in William Gardner Smith’s “The Last of the Conquerors.”
  198. MILITARY ERROR, page 208: “…the Gillem Plan, a controversial army initiative…”            CORRECTION: It was the Gillem Board
  199. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 211: “[Claude McKay] had dedicated an early [1912] book of poetry published in Jamaica to Sir Sydney Oliver, the country’s governor at the time…”            CORRECTION: He was Sir Sydney Olivier; and…
  200. …Jamaica, then a British colony, was not a country until fifty years later–1962.
  201. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 211: “[Jamaican immigrant Claude] McKay left his original [U.S.] destination, Tuskegee, for New York.”            CORRECTION: Famously, writer Claude McKay left Tuskegee, Alabama, not for Manhattan, NYC–but Manhattan, Kansas, where he studied for two years at Kansas State College.
  202. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 211: “[Claude] McKay’s acclaimed anti-lynching poem, ‘If We Must Die’ [from] 1919…”          CORRECTION: The poem is widely presumed to be about the pogroms in numerous Northern cities during that year’s “Red Summer.” Pogroms (random mass racial attacks) are not synonymous with lynchings (vigilante mob executions of targeted individuals).
  203. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 211: [Historic leftist newspaper:] “Worker’s Dreadnought.”            CORRECTION: Workers’ Dreadnought” (plural possessive).
  204. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 212: [Surinamese black radical:] “Otto Huiswood.”            CORRECTION: He was Otto Huiswoud.
  205. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 212: “In ‘A Long Way Home,’ his 1937 memoirs of life abroad, [Claude] McKay…”            CORRECTION: The title is “A Long Way From Home.”  mckay
  206. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 213: “Much of the [1922 Communist Party] document’s content bears the unmistakable imprint of Black Nationalism…”            CORRECTION: Unmistakable? The CP’s 1922 document is stock Marxist-Leninism whose universalist/materialist rhetoric is antithetical to black nationalism.
  207. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 214: “…several postwar lynchings that claimed former soldiers as victims…”            CORRECTION: Several? Infamously there were numerous documented lynchings of black veterans returning from World War I.  .cgi?article=3794&context=etd
  208. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 216: “…Carl Van Vechten’s novel ‘Nigger Heaven’ (1925)…”            CORRECTION: The scandalous “Harlem Renaissance”-associated text was published in 1926.
  209. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 216: “…the novel’s appearance during the ‘Harlem Vogue’…”           CORRECTION: Instead the capitalized 1920s period term is “Negro Vogue” from the French “Vogue Nègre.” Significantly, the international appreciation was not for a black district in New York City–but for black culture worldwide.,d.cWc
  210. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 217: [Claude McKay passage:] “Ignorant black men were pitted against their brother [sic] in a cause.”            CORRECTION: “…pitted against their brothers to fight for a cause.”
  211. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 218: “At the 1919 peace conference in France…Woodrow Wilson made his famous self-evident proclamation: ‘New nations are to be formed. Old nations are to be recreated.'”            CORRECTION: This is not even a Wilson quotation. It is–as the cited source clearly explains–black radical Cyril Briggs writing in the newsletter of the African Blood Brotherhood and paraphrasing Paris Peace Conference conclusions to endorse “revolutionary black nationalism.”
  212. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 218“…the United States invaded and occupied Haiti in 1915 [and] remained there five years.”            CORRECTION: This is a glaring error; it was nineteen years–until 1934.  haitit  [click to enlarge]
  213. MILITARY ERROR, page 218: “…[fighting] between the Allieds [sic] and the Germans.”         CORRECTION: Another non-word used repeatedly/consistently in AFBWB. In discussing World War II, AFBWB refers to the Allies, the countries joined against the Axis, as…“the Allieds.”
  214. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 219: “…the Germans, whose Socialist-Democratic government…”            CORRECTION: Social Democratic government–which was anti-Socialist.
  215. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 219: [Claude McKay article:] “Once More the Germans to Face Black Troops.”           CORRECTION: “Once More the Germans [no ‘to’] Face Black Troops,” with a different tense.
  216. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 219: [Infamous post-WWI British newspaper headline:] “Sexual Horrors Let Loose by France.”            CORRECTION: “Sexual Horror Let Loose by France on the Rhine.”*Horror*+Let+Loose+by+France+on+the+Rhine&source=bl&ots=dR28YfTRiA&sig=HDaBCn-CalIIoMugHMWcib836Go&hl=en&sa=X&ei=nmSnUsLHCqjPsATDgoCYAQ&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Sexual%20*Horror*%20Let%20Loose%20by%20France%20on%20the%20Rhine&f=false
  217. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 221: “During a single day, [the black stevedores at the French seaport Brest] unloaded 5,000 tons of cargo. They slept on dirt-floor tents or on the ship’s decks…”            CORRECTION: The cited source indicates it was 25,000 tons of cargo; and…
  218. …the “dirt-floor tents” were not for stevedores at an urban wharf, but a labor battalion (non-stevedores) in a forest camp.
  219. MILITARY ERROR, page 222: “Jake’s determination to go AWOL in the first chapter of [‘Home to Harlem’]…”            CORRECTION: Yet again the military-themed AFBWB misuses a basic military term. The hero of Claude McKay’s novel was determined to desert from the army, and “AWOL” means “absent without leave” (from one’s post) but without intent to desert.
  220. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 223: “…by some estimates 3,000 Haitians were murdered [during the U.S. Occupation].”            CORRECTION: Another huge statistical error. The long-standard historical estimate is at least 11,000
  221. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 223: “After the war [WWI], the imperial forces drew national boundaries in Africa that forced tribes who were historically hostile to one another to coexist in one new nation…”            CORRECTION: It’s standard knowledge that Europe’s “partitioning” of Africa took place largely in the nineteenth century–especially at the notorious 1884-1885 “Berlin Conference.” Boundaries were virtually completed by 1913–before the start of World War I in 1914.  africa [click to enlarge]
  222. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 224: [Frantz Fanon passage:] “…where the niggers beat each other up.”            CORRECTION: “…when the niggers beat each other up.”
  223. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 225: [Locale in Claude McKay’s novel “Home to Harlem”:] “Queen of the Nile.”            CORRECTION: The Harlem restaurant is The Nile Queen.  
  224. FABRICATION? page 226: “…the tribalism and exclusivity of white ideals of nationhood…”            CORRECTION: Another of AFBWB’s dogmatic racial binaries goes unexplained and unsubstantiated–and “supports” a literary theory. Certainly “white” nations have no monopoly on “tribalism and exclusivity.”
  225. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 227: “…[a] true revolutionary such as L’Ouverture.”           CORRECTION: The proper single-name referent for Haitian liberator François Toussaint Louverture (no apostrophe–see #54) is his family name Toussaint. The ascriptive Louverture (“The Opening”) is never used alone.  toussaint  marronage [click to enlarge]
  226. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 227: [Major slavery term:] “maroonage.”           CORRECTION: Maroons practice marronage.
  227. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 227: [France’s national motto:] “Liberté, Fraternité, Egalité.”            CORRECTION: “Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité” (transposition).
  228. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 232: “[Gwendolyn Brooks’s] 1944 book of poems ‘A Street in Bronzeville’…”            CORRECTION: Brooks’s debut book is from 1945.
  229. LITERARY ERROR, page 230: “Hemingway’s classic…World War I novel, ‘The Sun Also Rises’…”            CORRECTION: Rather, of course, it is “A Farewell to Arms”–“The Sun Also Rises” is about socialites and bullfighting in the 1920s, after the war.
  230. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 235: “[Gwendolyn Brooks’s ‘Negro Digest’ article] ‘Why Negro Women Leave Home’ [was] a rebuke of [St. Clair Drake’s article] ‘Do Black Women Make Good Wives?’”           CORRECTION: It rebuked Drake’s “Why Men Leave Home”; and…
  231. …the pioneering black sociologist’s other article is “Do Negro Women Make Good Wives?” (In the 1950s the word “black,” not valorized until the 1960s, would never have been used positively in “Negro Digest.”)
  232. FABRICATION? page 236“[During WWII] the War Department insisted that black blood donations not be given to white soldiers in spite of the American Medical Association’s and Red Cross’s protestations that theories of ‘tainted’ black blood had no basis in science.”            CORRECTION: This is a massive error. Infamously and injuriously, both the AMA and Red Cross upheld segregation of the USA’s blood supply during WWII–as protested by CORE and other civil-rights groups. Note: This AFBWB blunder has been picked up and carried forward by another publication; see [p. 36]:  [click to enlarge]
  233. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 237: [Gwendolyn Brooks verse:] “Congenital inequities that cause…”             CORRECTION: “Congenital iniquities…” The mistranscribing changes the poet’s meaning considerably: “iniquity” means wickedness–and “inequity” means unfairness
  234. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 239: [Brooks sonnet title]: “still do I keep my look, my identity.”          CORRECTION: To suggest unfinished dialogue the title takes interior quotes and an ellipsis: “ still do I keep my look, my identity…’
  235. LITERARY ERROR, page 240: “…Lentino’s thirteenth-century version of the sestet…”            CORRECTION: The Italian nobleman-poet credited with inventing the sonnet is da Lentini.
  236. MILITARY ERROR, page 245: “…Veteran’s Administration…”            CORRECTION: Veterans Administration.
  237. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 248: [Gwendolyn Brooks title:] “loose leaves from a loose-leaf war diary.”           CORRECTION: The ending poems of the Pulitzer Prize-winning “Annie Allen” are titled: “leaves [no ‘loose’] from a loose-leaf war diary.”
  238. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, pages 252-253: [Brooks dialogue:] “’…she is going to Marry [sic] Doctor Williams…What does poppa say?'”            CORRECTION: “‘…she’s going to marry Doctor Williams…What does Papa say?'”
  239. DISABILITY-STUDIES ERROR, page 255“…the unlikely appeal of the Venus de Milo, a sculpture we know as an amputated figure.”           CORRECTION: This should say amputee figure. Once again AFBWB misuses the term “amputated” which means “severed/cut-off.” A figure is not amputated–its appendages are.
  240. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 259: [Gwendolyn Brooks passage:] “…smashed corpses lying in strict composure, in a hush, infallible and sincere.”            CORRECTION: The famous line from “Maud Martha” ends: “…in that hush [no comma] infallible and sincere.”
  241. FABRICATION? page 261: “[The U.S. Army report] goes on to claim that the catalyst [for the nine-day ‘race riots’ in Brisbane, Australia, in March 1942] appeared to be white soldiers’ barring African American soldiers from Australian-owned ‘dance halls and skating rinks’…”            CORRECTION: Again AFBWB in literary-theorizing withholds key historical facts. Glaringly unmentioned is the Army report’s main conclusion: The fierce and protracted riots resulted from white troops’ resentment of black troops’ sexual relations with white Australian women–met at “dance halls and skating rinks” but especially at Brisbane’s brothels.
  242. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 261: “There was at least one documented mutiny [in WWII,] led by 50 black sailors at Port Chicago, a munitions facility in California…”             CORRECTION: Infamously, as the NAACP proved, this “mutiny” had no documentation–it was trumped-up out of U.S. Military racism. Following a deadly explosion at Port Chicago, hundreds of black sailors mounted a protest of unsafe working conditions. In retaliation the Navy singled out 50 sailors and falsely convicted them of “mutiny” to serve as an example. The 50 sailors (notice the round number) were not “leaders” but scapegoats. naacp_mutiny   brown [click to enlarge]
  243. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 262: “…and ‘Brown vs. the Board of Education’ had been decided in 1954…”            CORRECTION: The U.S. Supreme Court case is “Brown v. Board of Education.”
  244. FABRICATION? page 262: “[Famous African-American journalist] Ted Poston…writes that the black soldiers were not merely armed but ‘armed with weapons of mass modern warfare’…”           CORRECTION: These words (by Poston?) appear nowhere in the cited “source.”
  245. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 263: “The OAAU’s [founding 1964] treatise contained the notorious phrase, ‘by any and all means necessary.'”            CORRECTION: It did not. The accurate phrase in the charter of Malcolm X’s Organization of Afro-American Unity is “by whatever means necessary.” Subsequently Jean-Paul Sartre’s pre-existing phrase “by any means necessary” became closely identified with Malcolm X. The phrase “by any and all means necessary” [sic] is another invention by AFBWB’s author.  
  246. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 263: “The founding document [of the] Black Panthers [was] published in 1968.”            CORRECTION: The Black Panthers was founded two years earlier, in October of 1966, and issued its famous manifesto at that time.  panthers [click to enlarge]
  247. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 263: “[The Black Panther Party’s] founding document [ended] with a simple statement: ‘Guns Baby Guns.'”            CORRECTION: It did not–and this is another gross historical distortion. Famously, the BPP’s founding document of 1966 ended nonviolently: “We want land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice, and peace…” “Guns baby guns” was an informal slogan later used in the BPP newspaper–and the title of a 1967 poem by Huey P. Newton.
  248. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 263: “…[the 1963] hosing, beating, and tear gassing of…civil-rights protesters in Birmingham [Alabama]; [and] the church bombing in that city the following year.”            CORRECTION: Both landmark events of the Civil Rights movement happened in 1963 (May and September, respectively).  birmingham  chaney [click to enlarge]
  249. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 263: “[The Civil Rights movement martyrs] Schwerner, Cheney, and Goodman…”           CORRECTION: The African-American was (James) Chaney.
  250. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 264: “[John Oliver] Killens had been drafted in 1942…”        CORRECTION: Just the opposite–AFBWB’s featured writer dropped out of law school to enlist in WWII.
  251. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 264: “[Killens published the novel] three years after [his essays]…”        CORRECTION: Two years after.
  252. FABRICATION? page 266: “[Killens’s character] Bookworm…campaigns for a Section Eight by pretending to be gay (‘I really don’t look good in khaki,’ he notes).”            CORRECTION: This is egregious. In Killens’s novel “And Then We Heard the Thunder”–another featured text in AFBWB–the heterosexual soldier “Bookworm” Taylor tries hard to be discharged as “unfit” but never feigns homosexuality; and…
  253. …Bookworm’s actual line of dialogue is: “Khaki don’t become me nohow.” The alleged novel quotation “I really don’t look good in khaki” is a pure invention of AFBWB’s author.’t+become+me+nohow%22&source=bl&ots=ZUXwgokrMQ&sig=FRGFFxRHIxcny7V51EcFFRjO8No&hl=en&sa=X&ei=WjGrUsjfJcS1sASlxoGYDQ&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22khaki%20don’t%20become%20me%20nohow%22&f=falsees
  254. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 269: “…the black national anthem, ‘Lift Every Heart and Sing.'”            CORRECTION: Another atrocious black-studies error. The world-famous 1900 composition by James Weldon Johnson and J. Rosamond Johnson is titled: “Lift Every Voice and Sing” [or “Lift Ev’ry Voice and Sing”].  lift-every-voice [click to enlarge]
  255. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 270: [Famous Frederick Douglass passage:] “I expected my turn would be next.”             CORRECTION:  Transposition: “I expected it would be my turn next.”
  256. LITERARY ERROR, page 271: “[Killens’s character’s] already extant literacy…”            CORRECTION: This time AFBWB’s misuse of “extant” makes no sense whatsoever.
  257. LITERARY ERROR, page 273: [Killens passage:] “‘He musn’t think these kinds of thoughts, he musn’t write that kind of novel…He musn’t think like this.'”            CORRECTION: The English contraction used repeatedly/correctly by Killens is “mustn’t.”
  258. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 277: [Killens passage:] “How long, in this light of violence against me…”            CORRECTION: “…in the light of this violence…”
  259. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 278: “[Killens labeled WWII] ‘the Second World War Madness.'”            CORRECTION: Killens’s clever phrase was “the Second World-Wide Madness.”
  260. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 279: “[Paul] Revere chose Christian Remnick to ‘colorize’ his original black-and-white [engraving].”           CORRECTION: Another error-clogged sentence. Remick was the noted Boston artist’s surname;…
  261. …the appropriate art-historical term is hand-tint; and…
  262. …it was Henry Pelham’s original engraving (see #18).
  263. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 279: [Phillis Wheatley’s 1773 book:] “Poems on Subjects Religious and Moral.”            CORRECTION: AFBWB even mistitles the FIRST book ever published by an African-American author. Wheatley’s landmark text is: “Poems on Various Subjects, [comma] Religious and Moral.”  Wheatley_Poems [click to enlarge]
  264. FABRICATION? page 279: “…John S. Rock (the name adopted by Harriet Jacobs’s brother).”            CORRECTION: The famous black abolitionist, physician, and lawyer John S. Rock was unrelated to slave-narrative writer Harriet Jacobs–whose brother’s name was always John S. Jacobs.
  265. LITERARY ERROR, page 281: “…military historian Michael Lanning attributes [the racist ditty ‘Sambo’s Right to be Kilt’] to a white writer named Miles O’Reilly.”            CORRECTION: Instead, Lanning in the cited source explains the ditty’s familiar author-name “Miles O’Reilly” is a pseudonym for Charles G. Halpine.
  266. LITERARY ERROR, page 282: “Thomas Wentworth Higginson[‘s] ‘Army Life in a Black Regiment’ [was] originally published in 1870.”            CORRECTION: First published in 1869
  267. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 282: [Abolitionist magazine:] “The Weekly Anglo-African.”      CORRECTION:  It was “The [no ‘Weekly’] Anglo-African.”
  268. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 284:I am indebted to M. Guilia Fabi’s work on the Clotel novels.”           CORRECTION: The prominent literary critic is M. Giulia Fabi.
  269. LITERARY ERROR, page 285: [Leading nineteenth-century writer/critic:] “William Dean Howell.”            CORRECTION: William Dean Howells (the “dean of American literature”).
  270. FABRICATION? page 285: [Citation:] “William Wells Brown, quoted in ‘Clotelle: A Tale of the Southern States,’ [page] 227.”            CORRECTION: It turns out this endnote–page number included–is fake. Brown’s quotation is neither from “Clotelle” nor resembles the contents of that novel. The passage (“This rebellion will extinguish slavery in our land…”) is from Brown’s review of David G. Croly’s pamphlet “Miscegenation” and appeared on page 1 of “The Round Table,” Feb. 13, 1864. AFBWB’s immediate source was missing this data–and it appears another reference was simply made up.…%22&source=bl&ots=xX7n_4VbUp&sig=jLmHJN8NcOU4E9MCG8sVeO7V304&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ceupUrmPI-O-sQTkmICACw&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%5B%22This%20rebellion%20will%20extinguish%20slavery%20in%20our%20land…%22&f=false
  271. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 286: “Frances Harper, ‘A Duty to Dependent Races’…Delivered February 1891 in Washington, D.C…”            CORRECTION: Again both a Harper oration and its location are mistaken. The speech was “Duty [no ‘A’] to Dependent Races”; and…
  272. …Harper delivered it in Philadelphia (at the annual convention of the National Council of Women of the United States). and
  273. LITERARY ERROR, page 286: “…Gosset and Dunlap.”            CORRECTION: The prominent publishing partner is Grosset.
  274. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 286: [The full title of African-American abolitionist William Still’s classic 1872 book:] “The Underground Railroad; A Record of Facts, Authentic Letters…as related by Themselves or Others, or as Witnessed by the Author, Together with Some of the Largest Stockholders, and Most Liberal and Aiders, and Advisers…”            CORRECTION: This contains a dozen errata. Still’s accurate title is: “The Underground Rail Road; A Record of Facts, Authentic Narrative, Letters…as related by Themselves and Others, or Witnessed by the Author, Together with Sketches of Some of the Largest Stockholders, and Most Liberal Aiders and Advisers…”  still2 [click to enlarge]
  275. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 288: “[Charles Chesnutt’s essay was] originally published in the ‘Boston Evening Transcript,’ August 18, 1900.”            CORRECTION: Chesnutt’s “The Future American” started as a series of newspaper articles in late 1900.
  276. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 290[Citation:] “William and Ellen Craft, ‘Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom’ [1860].”           CORRECTION: William Craft alone is the credited author of the classic book about his and his wife’s escape from slavery.
  277. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 290: “…prominent abolitionist figures [such as] Gerritt Smith…”            CORRECTION: He was Gerrit Smith.
  278. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 292“[The writer was] an active member of the Negro American Academy…”          CORRECTION: The “American Negro Academy” (transposition).
  279. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 293: “For a study of the Negro Academy, see…”            CORRECTION: The “American Negro Academy.”
  280. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 293: “[An 1898 article in] ‘American Academy Occasional Papers’…”            CORRECTION: “American Negro Academy Occasional Papers.”  academy
  281. FABRICATION? page 294: “…whites deserted in far higher numbers [than blacks in the Philippine-American War].”            CORRECTION: Glaringly uncited–and highly dubious. More faux-history for an AFBWB literary theory?
  282. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 296: “Sutton E. Griggs, ‘Imperium and Imperio’…”           CORRECTION: The title of Griggs’s famous 1899 novel is “Imperium in Imperio”–a Latin phrase.
  283. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 296: [A.M.E. newsletter passage:] “‘Voices of Missions’…’encourages the shedding of innocent blood.'”            CORRECTION: “‘Voice of Missions’…’encourages murder and the shedding of innocent blood.'”
  284. LITERARY ERROR, page 296: “Letters…are available in the National Portrait Museum Archives in Washington, D.C.”            CORRECTION: It is the National Portrait Gallery Archive.
  285. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 298: “[W.E.B. DuBois’s sociological study] ‘The Philadelphia Negro’ [of] 1889…”            CORRECTION: DuBois’s seminal work dates from 10 years later: 1899.
  286. HISTORICAL ERROR, page 299: “Only Mexican Americans were arrested [in the ‘Zoot Suit Riots’].”            CORRECTION: This uncited absolutist claim is not only false but absurd–since thousands, mostly but not exclusively Mexican Americans, were arrested in these extensive riots in 1940s Los Angeles. One historian confirms: “many individuals from both factions were arrested.”
  287. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 300: [Prominent black-studies scholar:] “Robin D. Kelley.”           CORRECTION: He is Robin D.G. Kelley.
  288. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 300: [Publication date of Thurgood S. Marshall’s article “The Gestapo in Detroit”:] “1948.”            CORRECTION: Published in (August) 1943–in the wake of the (June) 1943 Detroit Riots.
  289. BLACK HISTORY ERROR, page 300: [Black-military historian:] “Ed Potter.”            CORRECTION: He is Lou Potter.
  290. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 301: [Black biographer:] “Leroy S. Hodges.”            CORRECTION: He is LeRoy S. Hodges, Jr.
  291. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 302: [Citation:] “‘Theses on the Negro Question,’ November 30, 1922.”            CORRECTION: The title is “Theses of the Fourth Comintern Congress on the Negro Question.”
  292. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 303: [Manuscript by R.G. Kristensen:] “Intertextuality: Maroonage as History and Metaphor.”            CORRECTION: “Intertextuality: Marronage as History and Metaphor.”  marronage [click to enlarge]
  293. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 304: [Publication date of Gwendolyn Brooks’s ‘A Street in Bronzeville’:] “1949.”         CORRECTION: Published in 1945. Elsewhere in AFBWB the date of Brooks’s first book is falsely claimed as “1944” (see #228).
  294. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 304: “[Five of Brooks’s poems appeared in] ‘Harper’s Weekly,’ February 1945.”            CORRECTION: “Harper’s Magazine.” The famous 19th-century publication “Harper’s Weekly” was long defunct.
  295. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 304: “…the famous ‘Venus Hottentot,’ the name given Sartje Baartman, a South African woman whose clitoris and buttocks were allegedly oversized.”            CORRECTION: Another bundle of errata. This should say “Hottentot Venus”;…
  296. Sara [or Sarah] Saartjie Baartman; and…
  297. genitalia and buttocks. 
  298. FABRICATION? page 304: “Baartman was exhibited in American freak shows [in the 1810s].”            CORRECTION: This is atrocious. The legendary “Hottentot Venus” toured Europe but never stepped foot in America. sara  Charles-Drew [click to enlarge]
  299. BLACK-HISTORY ERROR, page 305: “[Charles R.] Drew headed the American Red Cross during part of the war…”            CORRECTION: It is equally atrocious to claim an African-American in the 1940s under Jim Crow “headed” that large and prestigious national organization. Instead, famously, Drew developed and briefly directed the organization’s project: the American Red Cross Blood Bank.
  300. BLACK-LITERATURE ERROR, page 309: [John Oliver Killens’s 1972 book:] “Great Gittin’ Up in the Morning.”            CORRECTION: No, it’s not a self-help book. The title of the biography of slave-revolt leader Denmark Vesey is “Great Gittin’ Up Morning“–from a famous Negro spiritual.  killens  mahalia  [click to enlarge]


[BLACK LITERATURE, pages 64, 68, 286, 316: “’A Duty to Dependent Races’” should be “’Duty to Dependent Races.’”] [BLACK LITERATURE, pages 82, 288, 324: “’A History of Negro Troops in the Rebellion’” should be “’A History of the Negro Troops in the War of the Rebellion.’”][BLACK LITERATURE, pages 121, 315: “Alice Dunbar-Nelson” should be “Alice Dunbar Nelson.”] [BLACK LITERATURE, pages 200, 222, 223, 303, 319: “’Once More the Germans to Face Black Troops’” should be “’Once More the Germans Face Black Troops.’”] [BLACK LITERATURE, page 285: “’The Weekly Anglo African’” should be “’The Anglo-African.’”][BLACK LITERATURE, page 281: “’Colored Men, To Arms!’” should be “’Men of Color, To Arms!’”] [BLACK LITERATURE, pages 287, 322: “’Underground Railroad’” should be “’Underground Rail Road.’”] [BLACK LITERATURE, page 313: “Henry Blanchot” should be “Henry Batchlott.”] [BLACK LITERATURE, page 313: “’loose leaves from a loose-leaf war diary’” should be “’leaves from a loose-leaf war diary.’”] [BLACK LITERATURE, page 314: “Ana Julia Cooper” should be “Anna Julia Cooper.”] [BLACK LITERATURE, page 315: “’The Present Outlook for the Dark Races’” should be “’The Present Outlook for the Dark Races of Mankind.’”] [BLACK LITERATURE, page 316: “J.L. Greene” should be “J. Lee Greene.”][BLACK LITERATURE, page 317:  “’Coloured Women in America’” should be “’The Colored Woman of America.’”] [BLACK LITERATURE, page #: “H.T.J. Johnson” should be “H.T. Johnson.”] (25) [BLACK HISTORY, page 313: “Andre Cailloux” should be “André Cailloux.”][BLACK HISTORY, pages 41, 321: “Santo Domingo” should be “Saint-Domingue.”] [BLACK HISTORY, pages 116, 315: “Fifty-fourth Massachusetts” should be “Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Infantry.”] [BLACK HISTORY, page 116: “South Georgia Islands” should be “Sea Islands.”] [BLACK HISTORY, pages 125, 148, 226, 227, 322: “L’Ouverture” should be “Louverture.”] [BLACK HISTORY, pages 163, 164, 296, 314: “Colored A.M.E. Church” should be “A.M.E. Church.”] [BLACK HISTORY, page 180: “The Colored Man Is No Slacker” should be “Colored Man Is No Slacker.”] [BLACK HISTORY, page 180: “G.H. Henesch” should be “E.G. Renesch.”] [BLACK HISTORY, pages 258, 262, 312, 315: “Double VV program” should be “Double V program.”] [BLACK HISTORY, page 314: “Nanahokye Sockum Curtis” should be “Namahyoke Sockum Curtis.”] [BLACK HISTORY, page 317: “Otto Huiswood” should be “Otto Huiswoud.”] [HISTORY, pages 143, 144, 313, 314: “Columbian Exhibition” should be “Columbian Exposition.”] [HISTORY, page 223: “Allieds” should be “Allies.”] [HISTORY, page 313: “Richard Botta” should be “Carlo Botta.”] [HISTORY, page 313: “Mary Cecil Cantrell” should be “Mary Cecil Cantrill.”] [HISTORY, page 320: “Sir Sydney Oliver” should be “Sir Sydney Olivier.”] [HISTORY, page 320: “Paris Exhibition” should be “Paris Exposition.”] [HISTORY, page 324: “Worker’s Dreadnought” should be “Workers’ Dreadnought.”] [LITERATURE, pages 134, 138, 140, 322: “Under Fire with the U.S. Calvary” should be “Under Fire with the Tenth U.S. Cavalry.”] [LITERATURE, page 314:“Marse Chans” should be “Marse Chan.”] [LITERATURE, page 315: “Frances Miles Finch” should be “Francis Miles Finch.”] [LITERATURE, page 317: “William Dean Howell” should be “William Dean Howells.”] [LITERATURE, page 324: “Augusta Jane Evan Wilson” should be “Augusta Jane Evans Wilson.] (8) [MILITARY, pages 15, 321: “Joseph Sevran” should be “Joseph Servan.”] [MILITARY, pages 19, 133, 134, 137, 138, 140, 152, 320, 322: “Calvary” should be “Cavalry.”]  [MILITARY, pages 150, 283, 314: “Karl von Clausewitz” should be “Carl von Clausewitz.”] [MILITARY, pages 157, 316: “guerilla warfare” should be “guerrilla warfare.”] [MILITARY, page 230: “AWOL” should be “Desertion.”] [MILITARY, pages 301, 316: “Gillem Plan” should be “Gillem Board.”] [NOTE: This is a partial list of repeated errata and does not include ordinary typos.]

[TOTAL: 400+]

CODA: Publisher’s reviewer-blurb on the cover of AFBWB: “That James has mastered the literature and history of the period is beyond question.”


REPORT #2: James article in the anthology “Fighting Words and Images” (2012).

REPORT #3: James article in the anthology “Feminist Disability Studies” (2011).

REPORT #4: James article in the journal “American Literary History” (2012).

REPORT #5: James article in the journal “Environmental Criticism for the 21st Century” (2011).

REPORT #6: James article in the journal “African American Review” (2005).


We appreciate your interest in this website devoted to academic integrity.

Of course all serious comments are welcome and any/all

warranted amendments will be made ASAP.  –The Fact-checkers


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